Because of the process of ancient writing and the fact that so much of the biblical narrative is theological in nature, we cannot always depend on it for chronology. However, I also thoroughly reject the line of thought that says, the inability to reconcile the biblical narrative with the Moabite inscription calls into question the reliability of 2 Kgs 3.Read More A Wrap on the Moabite Stone: II Kings 3
Does the Moabite Stone really contain the phrase “House of David?” It should also be noted that the line in question is severely fragmented. Keeping in mind that one-third of the inscription has been restored from available squeezes, the uncertain translation has been reconstructed partly by what is visible on the stone and what is visible from these squeezes.Read More The Moabite Stone: Does it Reference the “House of David?”
The stone has no doubt become the subject of a great amount of controversy within the guild. This should not be surprising in an era where the field has experienced a noticeable shift from maximalists like W. F. Albright, Cyrus Gordon, and Yigael Ladin—who led the way in believing that the Bible reflected true history—to minimalists, like Thomas L. Thompson, Philip Davies, and Niels Peter Lemche— who posit that the biblical text is not historically oriented.Read More Controversy over the Moabite Stone: II Kings 3
The Moabite Stone (also called the Mesha Stele) is one of the earliest discoveries directly related to the biblical narrative. For it refers by name to King Omri of Israel, and thus, provides a written source from another ruling power of Israel’s existence. Moreover, it claims to have conquered the people of Israel, who were led by this king and his unnamed son, and to have captured cultic objects of worship that were dedicated to YHWH (line 18). Thus, the inscription makes an explicit connection between YHWH and Israel.Read More The Moabite Stone and Israel
The backstory to the discovery of the Moabite Stone is quite a fascinating account. On August 19th 1868, Frederick Augustus Klein (F. A. Klein), an Anglican medical missionary in Jerusalem, was made aware of the stone. Accompanied by the son of a famous Arab tribal sheikh, named Zattam, who provided protection for the duration of a trip, Klein undertook a journey—as he often did—to provide medical aid to both Jews and Arabs. This included a community of Bedouins on the east side of the Dead Sea at “an encampment about ten minutes from the ruins” of Dibon.Read More The Discovery and Acquisition of the Moabite Stone
Blog-reading friends, I thought this email was worth sharing today. I added a footnote here, which was not included in my email response.~Bryan
“But you, Daniel, keep the words secret and the book sealed until the time of the end. Many shall be running back and forth, and evil [KJV=knowledge] shall increase” Dan 12:4.
Email Question: Daniel 12:4 means what? Is this really talking about our technologically advanced times in which we live and the business of our world today?
First, the Hebrew text of Daniel chapters 8—12 fall into the Second Temple period.1 Therefore, this section of the book was likely written in the 2nd Century BCE in order to encourage those who were undergoing persecution by the Seleucids under Antiochus IV Epiphanes (i.e., there is a near consensus among Hebrew Bible scholars that chapters 7–12 should be read as pseudepigrapha from the Seleucid period). More specifically, between 167 and 164 BCE, the Hebrew chapters 8—12 were added—i.e., the text of Daniel went through a periods of development (Hebrew–Aramaic–back to Hebrew. However, there is much discussion on this within the guild as well. Even so, the immediately historical context and meaning of this verse likely had to do with contemporary persecution (of that time, not sometime in our future).Read More Email Question: Daniel 12:4 means what?