Academia

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Does the Moabite Stone really contain the phrase “House of David?” It should also be noted that the line in question is severely fragmented. Keeping in mind that one-third of the inscription has been restored from available squeezes, the uncertain translation has been reconstructed partly by what is visible on the stone and what is visible from these squeezes.

Read More The Moabite Stone: Does it Reference the “House of David?”

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The stone has no doubt become the subject of a great amount of controversy within the guild. This should not be surprising in an era where the field has experienced a noticeable shift from maximalists like W. F. Albright, Cyrus Gordon, and Yigael Ladin—who led the way in believing that the Bible reflected true history—to minimalists, like Thomas L. Thompson, Philip Davies, and Niels Peter Lemche— who posit that the biblical text is not historically oriented.

Read More Controversy over the Moabite Stone: II Kings 3

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The Moabite Stone (also called the Mesha Stele) is one of the earliest discoveries directly related to the biblical narrative. For it refers by name to King Omri of Israel, and thus, provides a written source from another ruling power of Israel’s existence. Moreover, it claims to have conquered the people of Israel, who were led by this king and his unnamed son, and to have captured cultic objects of worship that were dedicated to YHWH (line 18). Thus, the inscription makes an explicit connection between YHWH and Israel.

Read More The Moabite Stone and Israel

hoto courtesy of Jonathan Moore, Amridge University. Photo taken at the Louvre Museum, Paris. hoto courtesy of Jonathan Moore, Amridge University. Photo taken at the Louvre Museum, Paris.

The backstory to the discovery of the Moabite Stone is quite a fascinating account. On August 19th 1868, Frederick Augustus Klein (F. A. Klein), an Anglican medical missionary in Jerusalem, was made aware of the stone. Accompanied by the son of a famous Arab tribal sheikh, named Zattam, who provided protection for the duration of a trip, Klein undertook a journey—as he often did—to provide medical aid to both Jews and Arabs. This included a community of Bedouins on the east side of the Dead Sea at “an encampment about ten minutes from the ruins” of Dibon.

Read More The Discovery and Acquisition of the Moabite Stone

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Discussions over the textual formation and the authorship of the Bible are a matter of serious debate within the world of Biblical scholarship. On one side of the discussion, conservative-evangelical biblical scholars (not all; more specifically, “fundamentalists”) often begin with the premise that the Bible is sacred, inerrant, inspired, and historically accurate. In counterargument, critical scholars—some of whom also believe that the Bible is the word of God—do not begin with this same premise—and thus, they do not feel the need to view the Bible as historically flawless.

Read More Inerrancy, Inspiration, and the Authority of the Bible (My View)

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Hahn begins his article by acknowledging the three most prominent positions concerning the identity of “all Israel” in Rom 11:26a. He defines them as follows: (a) “Ethnic Israelism,” which describes all Israel as “biological descendants of Jacob/Israel” (65). (b) “Ecclesial Israelism,” which identifies, “all Israel as the church composed of both Jews and Gentiles” (65). (c) “Elect Israelism,” which construes “all Israel” as “a remnant of the descendants of Israel chosen by God” (65). Subsequently, Hahn points out that there are two dominate views concerning the questions: “how” and “when” will all Israel be saved? (a) The position that he defines as “progressivism,” which posits that the salvation of Israel has been ongoing throughout history via the mission of the church” (65). (b) “Futurism,” which posits a mass conversion of Israel will take place at or just before the Parousia of Christ” sometime in the future (65).

Read More A Review of Scott Hahn’s Essay, All Israel Will Be Saved: The Restoration of the Twelve Tribes in Romans 9–11